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Passage 37

  Japanese firms have achieved the highest levels of manufacturing efficiency in the world automobile2 industry. Some observers of Japan have assumed that Japanese firms use the same manufacturing equipment(5)and techniques as United States firms but have bene-fited from the unique characteristics of Japanese employees and the Japanese culture. However, if this were true,then one would expect Japanese auto1 plants in the United States to perform no better than factories(10) run by United States companies. This is not the case,Japanese-run automobile plants located in the United States and staffed by local workers have demonstrated higher levels of productivity when compared with facto- ries owned by United States companies.
 ?。?5)Other observers link high Japanese productivity to higher levels of capital investment per worker. But a historical perspective leads to a different conclusion. When the two top Japanese automobile makers3 matched and then doubled United States productivity(20)levels in the mid-sixties,capital investment per employee was comparable to that of United States firms. Furthermore,by the late seventies,the amount of fixed4 assets required to produce one vehicle was roughly equivalent in Japan and in the United States.(25)Since capital investment was not higher in Japan,it  had to be other factors that led to higher productivity.
  A more fruitful explanation may lie with Japanese production techniques. Japanese automobile producers did not simply implement5 conventional processes more(30)effectively:they made critical changes in United States  procedures. For instance,the mass-production philos-ophy of United States automakers encouraged the production of huge lots of cars in order to utilize6 fully7 expensive, component-specific equipment and to(35)occupy fully workers who have been trained to execute one operation efficiently8. Japanese automakers chose to make small-lot production feasible by introducing several departures from United States practices,including the use of flexible equipment that could be(40) altered easily to do several different production tasks and the training of workers in multiple jobs.Automakers could schedule the production of different components9 or models on single machines,thereby eliminating the need to store the buffer10 stocks of extra(45)components that result when specialized11 equipment and workers are kept constantly active.

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
  ?。ˋ) present the major steps of a process
  ?。˙) clarify an ambiguity12
  ?。–) chronicle a dispute
  ?。―) correct misconceptions
  ?。‥) defend an accepted approach

  2. The author suggests that if the observers of Japan mentioned in line 3 were correct, which of the following would be the case?
  ?。ˋ) The equipment used in Japanese automobile plants would be different from the equipment used in   United States plants.
  ?。˙) Japanese workers would be trained to do several different production jobs.
  ?。–) Culture would not have an influence on the productivity levels of workers.
  ?。―) The workers in Japanese-run plants would have higher productivity levels regardless of where they   were located.
  ?。‥) The production levels of Japanese-run plants located in the United States would be equal to those of    plants run by United States companies.

  3. Which of the following statements concerning the productivity levels of automakers can be inferred from the passage?
  ?。ˋ) Prior to the 1960‘s, the productivity levels of the top Japanese automakers were exceeded by those of   United States automakers.
  ?。˙) The culture of a country has a large effect on the productivity levels of its automakers.
  ?。–) During the late 1970‘s and early 1980’s, productivity levels were comparable in Japan andthe United States.
  ?。―) The greater the number of cars that are produced in a single lot, the higher a plant‘s productivity level.
  ?。‥) The amount of capital investment made by automobile manufacturers in their factories determines the level of productivity.

  4. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true of Japanese automobile workers?
  ?。ˋ) Their productivity levels did not equal those ofUnited States automobile workers until the lateseventies.
  ?。˙) Their high efficiency levels are a direct result of cultural influences.
  ?。–) They operate component-specific machinery13.
  ?。―) They are trained to do more than one job.
  ?。‥) They produce larger lots of cars than do workers in United States factories.

  5. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph?
  ?。ˋ) A thesis is presented and supporting examples are provided.
  ?。˙) Opposing views are presented, classified, and then reconciled.
  ?。–) A fact is stated, and an explanation is advanced and then refuted.
  ?。―) A theory is proposed, considered, and then amended14.
  ?。‥) An opinion is presented, qualified15, and then reaffirmed.

  6. It can be inferred from the passage that one problem associated with the production of huge lots of cars is which of the following?
  ?。ˋ) The need to manufacture flexible machinery and equipment
  ?。˙) The need to store extra components not required for immediate16 use
  ?。–) The need for expensive training programs for workers, which emphasize the development of facility in several production jobs.
  ?。―) The need to alter conventional mass-production processes
  ?。‥) The need to increase the investment per vehicle in order to achieve high productivity levels

  7. Which of the following statements is supported by information stated in the passage?
  ?。ˋ) Japanese and United States automakers differ in their approach to production processes.
  ?。˙) Japanese automakers have perfected the use of single-function equipment.
  ?。–) Japanese automakers invest more capital per employee than do United States automakers.
  ?。―) United States-owned factories abroad have higher production levels than do Japanese owned plants in   the United States.
  ?。‥) Japanese automakers have benefited from the cultural heritage of their workers.

  8. With which of the following predictive statement regarding Japanese automakers would the author most likely agree?
  ?。ˋ) The efficiency levels of the Japanese automakers will decline if they become less flexible in their   approach to production
  ?。˙) Japanese automakers productivity levels double during the late 1990‘s.
  ?。–) United States automakes will originate net production processes before Japanese automakers do.
  ?。―) Japanese automakers will hire fewer workers than will United States automakers because each worker   is required to perform several jobs.
  ?。‥) Japanese automakers will spend less on equipment repairs than will United States automakers because   Japanese equipment can be easily altered.


1 auto ZOnyW     
  • Don't park your auto here.别把你的汽车停在这儿。
  • The auto industry has brought many people to Detroit.汽车工业把许多人吸引到了底特律。
2 automobile rP1yv     
  • He is repairing the brake lever of an automobile.他正在修理汽车的刹车杆。
  • The automobile slowed down to go around the curves in the road.汽车在路上转弯时放慢了速度。
3 makers 22a4efff03ac42c1785d09a48313d352     
  • The makers of the product assured us that there had been no sacrifice of quality. 这一产品的制造商向我们保证说他们没有牺牲质量。
  • The makers are about to launch out a new product. 制造商们马上要生产一种新产品。 来自《简明英汉词典》
4 fixed JsKzzj     
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
5 implement WcdzG     
  • Don't undertake a project unless you can implement it.不要承担一项计划,除非你能完成这项计划。
  • The best implement for digging a garden is a spade.在花园里挖土的最好工具是铁锹。
6 utilize OiPwz     
  • The cook will utilize the leftover ham bone to make soup.厨师要用吃剩的猪腿骨做汤。
  • You must utilize all available resources.你必须利用一切可以得到的资源。
7 fully Gfuzd     
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
8 efficiently ZuTzXQ     
  • The worker oils the machine to operate it more efficiently.工人给机器上油以使机器运转更有效。
  • Local authorities have to learn to allocate resources efficiently.地方政府必须学会有效地分配资源。
9 components 4725dcf446a342f1473a8228e42dfa48     
(机器、设备等的)构成要素,零件,成分; 成分( component的名词复数 ); [物理化学]组分; [数学]分量; (混合物的)组成部分
  • the components of a machine 机器部件
  • Our chemistry teacher often reduces a compound to its components in lab. 在实验室中化学老师常把化合物分解为各种成分。
10 buffer IxYz0B     
  • A little money can be a useful buffer in time of need.在急需时,很少一点钱就能解燃眉之急。
  • Romantic love will buffer you against life's hardships.浪漫的爱会减轻生活的艰辛。
11 specialized Chuzwe     
  • There are many specialized agencies in the United Nations.联合国有许多专门机构。
  • These tools are very specialized.这些是专用工具。
12 ambiguity 9xWzT     
  • The telegram was misunderstood because of its ambiguity.由于电文意义不明确而造成了误解。
  • Her answer was above all ambiguity.她的回答毫不含糊。
13 machinery CAdxb     
  • Has the machinery been put up ready for the broadcast?广播器材安装完毕了吗?
  • Machinery ought to be well maintained all the time.机器应该随时注意维护。
14 Amended b2abcd9d0c12afefe22fd275996593e0     
adj. 修正的 动词amend的过去式和过去分词
  • He asked to see the amended version. 他要求看修订本。
  • He amended his speech by making some additions and deletions. 他对讲稿作了些增删修改。
15 qualified DCPyj     
  • He is qualified as a complete man of letters.他有资格当真正的文学家。
  • We must note that we still lack qualified specialists.我们必须看到我们还缺乏有资质的专家。
16 immediate aapxh     
  • His immediate neighbours felt it their duty to call.他的近邻认为他们有责任去拜访。
  • We declared ourselves for the immediate convocation of the meeting.我们主张立即召开这个会议。