自考“英语(一)”笔记 七十三
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  Text A    the language of uncertainty1


  1. dominate v. rule, control (统治,支配,控制)

  domination n. 统治、支配、控制

  1)He felt ill at ease living in a white-dominated society. (他觉得生活在一个白人统治的社会里很不自在。)

  2)His opinion dominated the other members of the committee.


  3)This issue dominated the discussion. (这个议题在讨论中占了首要地位。)

  4)Agriculture has lost its dominance in many countries. (农业在许多国家已失去了优势。)

  5)The domination of Europe over the rest of the world has long since declined.


  2. judgment2 n. 判决;看法;判断

  judge v. 审判;判断;认为      n. 法官;裁判员

  1) He hoped the judgment would be in his favor. (他希望判决对他有利。)

  2) He sometimes couldn't live with himself if he made a mistake in judgment.


  3) In my judgment, we should do it right now. (依我看,我们应该马上做这件事。)

  4) He was brought to the judge, accused of stealing. (他被指控行窃而带到法官面前受审。)

  5) Mr. Li is going to be a judge of a beauty contest. (李先生将做选美比赛的评判员。)

  6) The young man was judged innocent. (那个年轻人被判无罪。)

  7) We cannot judge whether it is right or wrong. (我们不能判断这是对还是错。)

  8) I judge she knew what she was doing. (依我看,她当时知道她在干什么。)

  3. editorial n. 社论 adj. 编辑的

  editor n. 编辑

  edit v. 编辑;校订;修改

  1) This issue carries a weighty editorial on education. (这期登了一篇有关教育的很有分量的社论。)

  2) The editorial policies haven't changed a bit over the years. (这些年来编辑方针没有丝毫改变。)

  3) He was made assistant editor on the paper. (他被任为那报纸的助理编辑。)

  4) The chief editor was on a business trip. (主编出差了。)

  5) Scholars often edit Shakespeare's plays. (学者们常校订莎士比亚的剧本。)

  6) He is carefully editing his speed. (他正在仔细修改自己的讲稿。)

  4. wage n. 工资,报酬      v. 进行,开展


  1) They stopped working to press for better wages and working conditions.


  2) His wages are 200 dollars a week. (他的工资是200美元一周。)

  3) They waged a campaign against cheating on exams. (他们开展了反对考试作弊的运动。)

  4) Germany waged a war against Poland. (德国对波兰开战。)

  5. probability n. 可能性;概率

  probable adj. 可能的


  1) The probability of an earthquake disturbed everybody. (地震的可能使每一个人不安。)

  2) In all probability, they could perform many different musical instruments.


  3) Every event has a particular probability of occurring. (每个事件都有其特定的发生率。)

  4) This is the most probable interpretation4 of the situation. (这是对形势的最可能的解释。)

  5) Xiao Wang is the probable winner. (小王是颇有希望得胜的人。)

  6) It is probable that he forgot. (他或许是忘记了。)

  6. verbal adj. 言辞的;口头的;动词的

  1) This job calls for excellent verbal talent. (这份工作需要极好的口才。)

  2) The difference is merely verbal. (差别仅仅在于措辞。)

  3) “en” and “-ize” are common verbal endings. (“en” 和 “-ize”是常见的动词词尾。)

  verbal instructions (文字说明)    a verbal protest (口头抗议)

  a verbal agreement (口头协议)

  7. imprecision n. 不精确,不正确    imprecise adj. 不精确的;不正确的

  im-是一个前缀,通常加在以 “m”、 “p”、或 “b”为首的形容词、副词和名词前,构成反义词。如:immature (不成熟的),immodest (不谦虚的),immoral6 (不道德的);impossible (不可能的), impolite (不礼貌的),impatience7 (不耐心);imbalance (不平衡)等等。

  -ion是一个名词后缀,我们已经多次碰到过,如protection (?;ぃ?, extension (延伸)。

  1)The imprecision of the ordinary words led to many misunderstandings.


  2) The imprecision of the ruler gave him a lot of trouble. (尺子的不精确给他带来了很多麻烦。)

  3) My ideas about it were imprecise. (我对这个问题的看法不准确。)

  4) The terms he used were imprecise. (他用的术语不确切。)

  8. denote v. indicate, show (指示;代表;是…的标记)

  1) Dark clouds denote rain. (乌云是下雨的预兆。)

  2) Red flares8 denote danger. (红色火焰是危险的标记。)

  3) My identity was denoted by a plastic label on my wrist. (我手腕上的塑料标签表明了我的身份。)

  9. subjective9 adj. 主观的

  subject n. 主观;题目;学科;臣民;主语      adj. 受支配的;易受…的

  1) It is only my subjective impression. (这仅是我的主观印象。)

  2) How can you fully3 believe his subjective judgement? (你怎能完全相信他的主观判断?)

  3) What's the subject for today’s debate? (今天辩论的题目是什么?)

  4) I am taking four subjects this semester. (本学期我选四门课。)

  5) He is a British subject. (他是英国臣民。)

  6) India is no longer subject to British rule. (印度不再受英国统治了。)

  7) This area is subject to seasonal10 winds. (这个地区常遭受季风的袭击。)

  10. potentially adv. 可能地,潜在地

  potential adj. 潜在的,可能的       n. 潜力,可能性

  1) Electricity is potentially dangerous. (电是潜力的危险。)

  2) The dispute has scared away potential investors11. (这场争论吓跑了可能的投资者。)

  3) The hole in the road is a potential danger. (路上的那个坑是个潜在的危险。)

  4) The system gives everyone a chance to tap one's potential to the full.


  11. prediction n. 预言;预报

  predict v. 预言,预报

  pre-是一个前缀,表示before, 如:prehistoric (史前的),preschool (学前)。

  dict是个词根,意思是to say, 如:contradict (矛盾;否定),dictator (独裁者;口授者)

  1) Have you listened to the weather prediction for the day? (你听了当天的天气预报了吗?)

  2) They made prediction about possible price increase. (他们对物价上涨的可能性进行预测。)

  3) The weather scientists predicted a light rain and temperature drop. (气象专家们预测有小雨,气温将下降。)

  4) I cannot predict what will happen. (我无法预料将会发生什么事情。)

  12. signify v. 表示…的意思;表明;意味着

  signification n. 意义;表示

  我们讲到过-fy是个动词后缀,意思是make,如identify, beautify, purify等等。

  sign是词根,意思是mark,如:signature (签字,记号),design (设计,意图)

  1) “MD” signifies “Doctor of Medicine”。 (“MD”意为“医学博士”。)

  2) He signifies consent with a smile. (他微笑表示同意。)

  3) The clouds signified the coming storm. (乌云预示着即将有暴风雨。)

  4) Signification relies largely upon words and gestures. (表示意思主要靠言词和示意动作。)

  13. secondly13 adv. 第二,其次

  1) He was first of all a dishonesty chap, secondly he was irresponsible.


  2) I don't like this pair of shoes. Firstly the color is awful; secondly it is too expensive.


  14. assign v. 分配;指派;指定;布置

  assignment n. 任务;作业;分配

  1) They assigned me a small room. (他们分给我一个小房间。)

  2) I was assigned to the mountain village. (我被派到那个山村工作。)

  3) Have you assigned a day for the meeting? (你们指定了开会日期吗?)

  4) He finished all the homework assignments in two hours. (他用两小时完成了全部的家庭作业。)

  5) My first major assignment as a reporter was to cover a large scale riot.


  15. marked adj. 明显的;显著的

  1) The patient showed a marked improvement. (病人的病情显著好转。)

  2) A market police car sped past just now. (刚才一辆有标记的警车急驶而过。)

  3) The boy showed marked improvements in spelling and reading. (那个男孩在拼写和阅读方面有了显著提高。)

  16. widen v. 加宽,放宽扩大

  我们在前面讲到过-en可以做动词后缀,用在名词或形容词后面构成动词,如:lengthen, heighten, shorten, brighten等等。

  1) The river widens where it meets the sea. (那条河在入??诖Ρ淇砹?。)

  2) The road finally widened and we didn't have to worry about traffic blocks any more.


  3) The misunderstanding widened the gulf14 between the two sides. (误解加深了双方的隔阂。)

  4) His arguments widened my ideas. (他的论点开阔了我的思路。)

  5) He stared at me, his eyes widening. (他逼视着我,眼睛睁得大大的。)


1 uncertainty NlFwK     
  • Her comments will add to the uncertainty of the situation.她的批评将会使局势更加不稳定。
  • After six weeks of uncertainty,the strain was beginning to take its toll.6个星期的忐忑不安后,压力开始产生影响了。
2 judgment e3xxC     
  • The chairman flatters himself on his judgment of people.主席自认为他审视人比别人高明。
  • He's a man of excellent judgment.他眼力过人。
3 fully Gfuzd     
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
4 interpretation P5jxQ     
  • His statement admits of one interpretation only.他的话只有一种解释。
  • Analysis and interpretation is a very personal thing.分析与说明是个很主观的事情。
5 immature Saaxj     
  • Tony seemed very shallow and immature.托尼看起来好像很肤浅,不夠成熟。
  • The birds were in immature plumage.这些鸟儿羽翅未全。
6 immoral waCx8     
  • She was questioned about his immoral conduct toward her.她被询问过有关他对她的不道德行为的情况。
  • It is my belief that nuclear weapons are immoral.我相信使核武器是不邪恶的。
7 impatience OaOxC     
  • He expressed impatience at the slow rate of progress.进展缓慢,他显得不耐烦。
  • He gave a stamp of impatience.他不耐烦地跺脚。
8 flares 2c4a86d21d1a57023e2985339a79f9e2     
n.喇叭裤v.(使)闪耀( flare的第三人称单数 );(使)(船舷)外倾;(使)鼻孔张大;(使)(衣裙、酒杯等)呈喇叭形展开
  • The side of a ship flares from the keel to the deck. 船舷从龙骨向甲板外倾。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He's got a fiery temper and flares up at the slightest provocation. 他是火爆性子,一点就着。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
9 subjective mtOwP     
  • The way they interpreted their past was highly subjective. 他们解释其过去的方式太主观。
  • A literary critic should not be too subjective in his approach. 文学评论家的看法不应太主观。
10 seasonal LZ1xE     
  • The town relies on the seasonal tourist industry for jobs.这个城镇依靠季节性旅游业提供就业机会。
  • The hors d'oeuvre is seasonal vegetables.餐前小吃是应时蔬菜。
11 investors dffc64354445b947454450e472276b99     
n.投资者,出资者( investor的名词复数 )
  • a con man who bilked investors out of millions of dollars 诈取投资者几百万元的骗子
  • a cash bonanza for investors 投资者的赚钱机会
12 prehistoric sPVxQ     
  • They have found prehistoric remains.他们发现了史前遗迹。
  • It was rather like an exhibition of prehistoric electronic equipment.这儿倒像是在展览古老的电子设备。
13 secondly cjazXx     
  • Secondly,use your own head and present your point of view.第二,动脑筋提出自己的见解。
  • Secondly it is necessary to define the applied load.其次,需要确定所作用的载荷。
14 gulf 1e0xp     
  • The gulf between the two leaders cannot be bridged.两位领导人之间的鸿沟难以跨越。
  • There is a gulf between the two cities.这两座城市间有个海湾。